Unit | Chronic Disease Epidemiology

Identification of Risk Factors

The Burden of Non-Communicable Diseases

The fight against infections including interventions by Swiss TPH successfully decreased mortality at young ages. More and more people survive to old age and suffer from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). NCDs are often chronic and the disability burden is increasing. Life-long, often expensive NCD treatments are a risk of poverty for individuals, household and health systems. Primary prevention is therefore the priority in NCD control. More than half of the world’s population lives in an urban environment. This leads to alterations in social networks, occupational setting, environmental exposures and lifestyles, all of which can predispose to NCD development.

Research into the Relation between Exposome and Phenome

The unit conducts observational research to promote mechanistic understanding of the relation between the exposome (entirety of exposures to which humans are exposed over the life course) and the phenome (entirety of health phenotypes and comorbidities). In close collaboration with national and international policy makers, the unit applies the collected evidence and its members` know-how towards improving health and environmental policy (e.g. LUDOK).

Cohorts and Biobanks to Unterstand NCD and Risk Factors

The unit is setting up and running observational studies and cohorts of national and international value with associated biobanks (SAPALDIA; SOPHYA; CoDuBu) covering different age groups as well as geographical, cultural and genetic contexts. External environmental exposures (e.g. air pollution; transportation noise; chemicals) and lifestyle (e.g. physical activity; smoking; alcohol consumption; nutrition) are captured through personalized health and exposome approaches that also served human biomonitoring. Genetic and genomic biomarkers are interrogated for exposure, disease susceptibility, and molecular mediation in causal inference.

Exposomics
Basel, 06.05.2014 - Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH). Exposomics Studie mit Probantin. Photo by Roland Schmid
Exposomics
Basel, 06.05.2014 - Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH). Exposomics Studie mit Probantin. Photo by Roland Schmid

SAPALDIA

The Swiss study on Air Pollution And Lung Disease in Adults (SAPALDIA) is the only Swiss-wide chronic disease cohort with associated biobank. It was initiated in 1991 an dhas since been funded by the SNF, the Federal Offices for the Environment and Public Health, different Lung Leagues and cantons. SAPALDIA is at the center of national and international air pollution (ESCAPE; Exposomics) and respiratory health research (ALEC). The rich risk factor, environmental and health data as well as the genome- and methylome-wide data is used in studies ranging from assessing the role of physical activity, sleep, and transportation noise in cardio-metabolic disease etiology to the evaluation of chronic disease diagnosis and treatment.

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ALEC - Aging Lungs in European Cohorts

The Horizon 2020 funded project ALEC - Aging Lungs in European Cohorts - integrates data from long-term studies with high quality spirometry data from different countries and age groups. It aims to close the gaps in understanding of poor lung function and COPD and will develop a COPD risk prediction tool. Swiss TPH is participating to ALEC with the SAPALDIA cohort and is leading the work package on genetics and epigenetics. These biomarkers are integrated into Mendelian randomization studies to interrogate the causality of COPD risk factors.

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HBM4EU - The European Human Biomonitoring Initiative

Citizens are exposed to a wide range of chemicals through their diet, environment and use of consumer products. Human biomonitoring data of nationally representative or vulnerable subgroups of the population is essential to guide policy in all sectors dealing with the regulation of chemicals. Swiss TPH coordinates the participation of Switzerland in the Horizon2020 funded European Human Biomonitoring Initiative (HBM4EU). HBM4EU aims to use existing and collect new harmonized HBM data for improved understanding of health risks.

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Expert Commission for Genetic Testing in Humans

The Unit Head Nicole Probst-Hensch is member of the expert commission for Genetic Testing in Humans (GUMEK). The commission is appointed by the Federal Council for expert advise. The commission pursuits scientific and practical developments in the field of human genetics, formulates recommendations and indicates problems and gaps in the legislation.

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Federal Commission for Air Hygiene

Since 2012 Nino Künzli has been the president of the Federal Commission for Air Hygiene (FCAH) that is a committee of experts in the field of air pollution control. As an extra-parliamentary committee of experts, it is appointed by the federal government. It advises the government on scientific and methodological questions relating to air pollution.

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Htun N.S.N, Probst-Hensch N, Daubenberger C, Odermatt P. A systematic review of the diseases interaction between helminthic infections and diabetic mellitus. Ann Glob Health, 2017;83(1):84. DOI: 10.1016/j.aogh.2017.03.185

Altenburg T.M et al. Actual and perceived weight status and its association with slimming and energy-balance related behaviours in 10- to 12-year-old European children: the ENERGY-project. Pediatr Obes. 2017;12(2):137-145. DOI: 10.1111/ijpo.12120